The Async tag is used to improve page load time. It creates an empty HTML element, and after the page has loaded, a little script makes an asynchronous request to the server to render the template. This approach is also known as "lazy loading".
The Cache tag is used to improve page load time. It caches the rendered template using WPObjectCache, which stores it in the database by giving it a unique name and expiration time. This supports persistent cache plugins, such as Memcached, Redis, W3 Total Cache, and LiteSpeed.
The Glider tag provides a full-screen gallery slider. Note that this tag is a module, which means that it loads an additional library when used.
The Markdown tag renders Markdown format (syntax reference).
The Math tag evaluates mathematical expressions.
This feature is based on Mobile Detect, a PHP library for mobile device detection.
The Prism tag is a syntax highligher based on PrismJS.
This module extends the style tag to render the Sass styling language (reference).
The Slider tag provides a general-purpose slider. Each slide is wrapped in a Slide tag.